Wireless Information Infrastructures and the Future Internet: Protocol Components, System Architectures, Security and Privacy
Conference : Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications Symposium (WPMC'11)
Date: October 03 - October 06, 2011
Broadband Communication Infrastructures are expanding rapidly and are becoming ubiquitous. They are affecting every aspect of life and work. They are shaping the architecture, protocols and operation of the evolving future Internet. In this tutorial we describe major recent advances, challenges and opportunities in this critical area, from an integrated systems perspective. Hardware and physical layer advances are making possible new programmable types of networks and services. In the wireless arena physical layer advances mitigate interference (OFDM, MIMO, etc.) and will provide energy and bandwidth efficient and reliable communications. Services over the Future Internet and associated architectures are rapidly expanding and are increasingly interacting and integrated.
We present a new methodology to design wireless communication network protocols based on the decomposition of protocols into fundamental components and the use of optimization techniques for tradeoff analysis and synthesis. The new formal and model-based approach allows a systematic study of network performance and cross-layer analysis and design of routing, scheduling, MAC and PHY layer protocols. This approach, called Component Based Networking (CBN), combines and extends ideas and methods from component-based software engineering, formal models, performance models, optimization and trade-off analysis, compositional synthesis. We describe the current state of development and in particular applications to wireless network routing protocol design, and wireless network design that is cross-layer and beyond. Within this context we describe optimization methods that combine loss network models for wireless networks with automatic differentiation, generalized potential and routing, constrained shortest path problems and effects of network topology. We demonstrate the power of the methodology in the example of routing protocols, which are divided into multiple components. We use the method to design new and improved neighbor discovery and topology dissemination components for mobile wireless networks. To analyze and optimize the topology dissemination component we introduce the stable path topology control problem for link-state routing in mobile multihop networks. We formulate the selective link-state broadcast as a graph pruning problem with restricted local neighborhood information and we develop general conditions for the distributed local policies to preserve the stable routing paths globally.
Trust and reputation are critical concepts in networks – communication, control, computer, social, web-based, economic, biological. Trust evaluation leads to the development of relations and collaborations. These evaluations are based either on direct ‘communal’ monitoring and inference by the nodes, or on indirect references and credentials. We describe new fundamental ways for analyzing and evaluating trust in autonomic networked systems. Due to the dynamic and changing nature of autonomic networks trust evidence and the resulting evaluations may be uncertain and incomplete. The indirect evaluation process is modeled as a path problem on a directed graph, where nodes represent entities, and edges represent trust relations. We develop a novel formulation of trust computation as ‘linear’ iterations on partially ordered semirings. Using the theory of semirings, we analyze several key problems on the performance of trust algorithms. This allows us to formulate problems of resilience of trust metrics and trust evaluation to attacks. The direct trust evaluation process is modeled as iterated games on dynamic graphs. We present several explicit examples. We present the methodology of constrained coalitional dynamic games that we have developed for studying the effects of trust on collaboration.
We describe and solve various problems of wireless network security, information assurance and trust in dynamic wireless networks. These include detection and defense against attacks, detection of propagating viruses, evaluation of intrusion systems, attacks at the physical, MAC and routing protocols, trust establishment-dynamics-management. We describe the use of distributed change detection methods and algorithms for intrusion detection and the use of non-cooperative games for the detection and defense against attacks at all layers. We demonstrate how Bayesian decision theory can be used to evaluate intrusion detection systems and we resolve some key problems in this area. We use game theoretic methods again to develop robust protocols against attacks, including Byzantine ones. We provide an in-depth investigation of trust establishment and computation in such networks. We describe various methods for distributed trust evaluation and the associated trust (and mistrust) ‘spreading’ dynamics.
Authentication is the process where claims of identity are verified. Most mechanisms of authentication (e.g., digital signatures and certificates) exist above the physical layer, though some (e.g., spread spectrum communications) exist at the physical layer often with an additional cost in bandwidth. We introduce a general analysis and design framework for authentication at the physical layer where the authentication information is transmitted concurrently with the data. By superimposing a carefully designed secret modulation on the waveforms, authentication is added to the signal without requiring additional bandwidth, as do spread spectrum methods. The authentication is designed to be stealthy to the uninformed user, robust to interference, and secure for identity verification. The tradeoffs between these three goals are identified and analyzed in block fading channels. We describe further extensions to OFDM and multicarrier wireless devices. We also describe several other methods for authentication and security at the physical layer including the use of signal characteristics to authenticate mobile wireless devices, the discovery of unshakable physical characteristics in fingerprint sensors, the use of special-purpose trusted chips for increasing the security of portable computers and wireless devices and the use of hardware-based security towards establishing compositional security schemes. We demonstrate that allocating some of the security functions to hardware and the physical layer not only considerably strengthens the security of many wireless devices and networks, but is rapidly becoming a necessary component in the overall security architecture of modern and future networks, especially mobile wireless. In this part of the tutorial we cover security and trust in broadband wireless networks including physical layer security (signal processing, TPM, MTM, TCN, biometrics, PUFs and the integration of combinations) and universally composable security, including security aware network protocol design. We also give example applications in distributed estimation, fusion and trust, and smart grid cybersecurity.
Social networks over the web are also becoming ubiquitous and pose a unique set of challenges stemming primarily from the interactions of humans and technological networks. We describe new approaches in modeling and analysis of social networks and their dynamics including geometric and algebraic models, security and trust, privacy, reputation systems. Again the emphasis is on an integrated systems perspective and the need for appropriate model-based analytics. We close with an integrated model of the communication, information and cognitive layers of future networks and a description of certain foundational problems it implies for networked systems.